19 June 2013 / 1434 شعبان 11
Tawassul in Arabic means seeking to draw close. Allaah says in the Qur’aan (interpretation of the meaning): “…[they] desire means of access to their Lord…” [al-Isra’ 17:57], i.e., means of drawing close to Him.
There are two types of Tawassul, correct Islamic tawassul and forbidden tawassul.
Correct Islamic Tawassul:
This means seeking to draw close to Allaah through acts of worship which He loves and which please Him; these may be waajib (obligatory) or mustahabb (encouraged), and may take the form of words, actions or beliefs. Some types are as follows:
Seeking to draw close to Allaah by means of His names and attributes. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allaah, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His names. They will be requited for what they used to do.” [al-A’raaf 7:180]. So when a person makes du’aa’ to Allaah, he begins by calling on Allaah with the name that is most apt, such as “al-Rahmaan” (the Most Merciful) when seeking mercy and al-Ghafoor (the All-Forgiving) when asking for forgiveness, and so on.
Seeking to draw close to Allaah by means of faith and Tawheed. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Our Lord! We believe in what You have sent down, and we follow the Messenger, so write us down among those who bear witness (to the truth).” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:53]
Seeking to draw close to Allaah through righteous deeds, whereby a person asks Allaah by virtue of the best deeds that he has done, such as salaah, fasting, reading Qur’aan, avoiding haraam things, and so on. An example of this is the saheeh hadeeth narrated in the Saheehayn about the three people who entered a cave, and a rock fell and blocked their way out. They asked Allaah by virtue of their best deeds (to save them). A person may also ask Allaah by virtue of his total dependency upon Him, as Allaah mentions in the Qur’aan (interpretation of the meaning): “[Ayyoob said:] ‘Verily, distress has seized me, and You are the Most Merciful of those who show mercy.’ [al-Anbiya’ 21:83]; or by admitting his own wrongdoing and his need for Allaah, as Yoonus is described as saying (interpretation of the meaning): “ ‘None has the right to be worshipped except You (O Allaah). Glorified (and exalted) are You. Truly I have been of the wrong-doers.’” [al-Anbiya’ 21:87]
The rulings on Islamically correct tawassul vary according to its type. Some types are waajib, such as seeking to draw close to Allaah through His names and attributes and through Tawheed (believing in His absolute Oneness), and some are mustahabb, such as seeking to draw close to Him by virtue of all kinds of righteous deeds.
Tawassul that is bid’ah and therefore forbidden:
This is the attempt to draw close to Allaah by means of things that He does not like and that do not please Him, whether they be words, deeds or beliefs. One example of this is trying to draw close to Allaah by calling on the dead or people who are absent, asking them for help, and so on. This is a form of major shirk (shirk akbar), which goes against Tawheed and means that a person is no longer considered to be a Muslim. Calling upon Allaah, whether it is for a purpose such as asking Him to grant some benefit or to ward off some harm, or as an act of worship to express humility and submission before Him, can only be addressed directly to Allaah. If du’aa’s or prayers are addressed to anything or anyone else, this is shirk. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And your Lord said: ‘Invoke Me (and ask Me for anything), I will respond to your invocation. Verily! Those who scorn My worship [i.e., do not invoke Me and do not believe in My Oneness], they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!” [Ghaafir 40:60]. In this aayah, Allaah explains the punishment of those who arrogantly refuse to call on Allaah, whether they call on someone other than Allaah or they do not call on Him at all, out of pride and self-admiration, even if they do not call on anyone else.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Invoke your Lord with humility and in secret…” [al-A’raaf 7:55]. Allaah commands His slaves to call on Him and not anyone else.
Allaah says of the people of Hell (interpretation of the meaning): “[They say:] ‘By Allaah, we were truly in a manifest error when we held you (false gods) as equals (in worship) with the Lord of the Worlds.” [al-Shu’ara’ 26:96-97]
Anything that results in equating something other than Allaah with Allaah in worship or acts of obedience is shirk, the crime of associating partners with Him. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And who is more astray than one who calls (invokes) besides Allaah, such as will not answer him until the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls (invocations) to them? And when mankind are gathered (one the Day of Resurrection), they (false deities) will become enemies for them and will deny their worshipping.” [al-Ahqaaf 46:5-6]
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “ And whoever invokes (or worships) besides Allaah, any other god, of whom he has no proof, then his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely, al-kaafiroon (the disbelievers in Allaah and in the Oneness of Allaah) will not be successful.” [al-Mu’minoon 23:117].
Allaah states that anyone who calls on anything other than him is taking that thing as a god, as He says (interpretation of the meaning): “…And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a qitmeer (the thin membrane over a date-stone). If you invoke (or call upon) them, they hear not your call, and if (in case) they were to hear, they could not grant it (your request) to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none can inform you (O Muhammad), like Him Who is the All-Knower (of everything).” [Faatir 35:13-14].
In this aayah, Allaah explains that He is the only One Who deserves to be called upon, because He, and no one else, is the Sovereign who is directing everything.
Those things that are worshipped cannot hear du’aa’s, let alone respond to the one who invokes them, and even if they were able to hear, they cannot respond, because they do not have the power to either benefit or harm.
The mushrik Arabs whom the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was sent to call were disbelievers because of this shirk. They would call upon Allaah sincerely at times of difficulty, but they became disbelievers at times of ease and plenty, when they would call on others besides Him. Allaah says (interpretation of the meanings):
“And when they embark on a ship, they invoke Allaah, making their Faith pure for Him only, but when He brings them safely to land, behold, they give a share of their worship to others.” [al-‘Ankaboot 29:65]
“And when harm touches you upon the sea, those that you call upon besides Him vanish from you excpet Him (Allaah Alone). But when He brings you safely to land, you turn away (from Him)…” [al-Isra’ 17:67].
“… till when you are in the ships and they sail with them with a favourable wind, and they are glad therein, then comes a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides, and they think that they are encircled therein, they invoke Allaah, making their Faith pure for Him Alone…” [Yoonus 10:33]
The shirk of some people nowadays goes even further than the shirk of people in the past, because they direct some acts of worship to something other than Allaah, calling upon them and asking them for help even at times of distress; laa hawla wa laa quwwata illa Billaah (there is no strength and no help except in Allaah). We ask Allaah to keep us safe and sound.
To sum up our response to what your friend mentioned: asking the dead for anything is shirk, and asking the living for anything that no one except Allaah is able to do, is also shirk. And Allaah knows best.
Praise be to Allaah.
The hadeeth about Adam committing a sin and seeking to draw closer to Allaah by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is a fabricated hadeeth which is falsely attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and to Adam (peace be upon him).
Scholars including Imam al-Dhahabi (may Allaah have mercy on him).
Al-Bayhaqi (may Allaah have mercy on him) did not narrate this hadeeth in his Sunan, rather he narrated it in Dalaa’il al-Nubuwwah (5/489), where he classed it as da’eef (weak). After quoting the hadeeth, he said: “It was narrated only by ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Zayd ibn Aslam, and he is da’eef.”
What makes it most likely that the text is false is the fact that the du’aa’ by which Allaah accepted Adam’s repentance is what is mentioned in Soorat al-A’raaf, where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“They said: ‘Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers’”
This is the supplication of Adam and Hawwa’, in which they called upon Allaah alone, and sought to draw close to Him (tawassul) by His names and attributes, and by mentioning their situation. These are words which Adam received from his Lord, then he said them and Allaah accepted his repentance, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful”
What is meant by the word waseelah [means of approach] in the verse, (interpretation of the meaning):
“O you who believe! Do your duty to Allaah and fear Him. And seek the means of approach to Him, and strive hard in His Cause (as much as you can), so that you may be successful”
is the way of reaching Allaah, and there is no way of reaching Him except the way that Allaah loves and is pleased with, which is by obeying Him and not disobeying Him.
Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Allaah commands His believing slaves to fear Him (taqwa). When this word is accompanied by mention of obedience, it means refraining from haraam things. After that Allaah says, “And seek the means of approach to Him”.
Sufyaan al-Thawri said, narrating from Talhah, from ‘Ata’, from Ibn ‘Abbaas: i.e., drawing close to Him. This was also stated by Mujaahid, Abu Waa’il, al-Hasan, Qataadah, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Katheer, al-Saddi, Ibn Zayd and others. Qataadah said: i.e., draw close to Him by obeying Him and doing that which pleases Him, and Ibn Zayd recited (interpretation of the meaning):
“Those whom they call upon [like ‘Eesa (Jesus) ‑ son of Maryam (Mary), ‘Uzayr (Ezra), angels and others] desire (for themselves) means of access to their Lord (Allaah)”
There is no difference of opinion among the mufassireen concerning what these imams said.
Means of approach or means of access means that by means of which one reaches one’s goal. End quote.
Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 2/53, 54.
Al-Shanqeeti (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Note that the majority of scholars are of the view that what is meant by waseelah here is drawing close to Allaah by obeying His commands and avoiding that which He has forbidden, in accordance with the teachings brought by Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), doing that sincerely for the sake of Allaah alone, because this is the only path that leads to the pleasure of Allaah and attaining what is with Him and what is good in this world and in the Hereafter.
The basic meaning of the word waseelah is a path that brings one near to something. Here it means righteous deeds, according to scholarly consensus, because there is no other way of drawing close to Allaah apart from following the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Based on this, there are many verses which explain the meaning of waseelah, such as the following (interpretation of the meaning):
“And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad) gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it”
“Say (O Muhammad to mankind): ‘If you (really) love Allaah, then follow me’”
[Aal ‘Imraan 3:31]
“Say: Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger”
And there are other similar verses.
It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas that what is meant by waseelah is need.
Based on this, the words narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas, “Seek with Him al-waseelah” mean, seek your needs from Allaah, for He alone is the one who is able to meet them. This is further explained by the verses in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, those whom you worship besides Allaah have no power to give you provision, so seek your provision from Allaah (Alone), and worship Him (Alone)”
“and ask Allaah of His Bounty”
And by the hadeeth: “If you ask, then ask of Allaah.”
Then al-Shanqeeti (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The correct view concerning the meaning of waseelah is that of the majority of scholars, that it means drawing closer to Allaah by worshipping Him alone, in accordance with the teachings of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
The tafseer of Ibn ‘Abbaas comes under this heading, because calling upon Allaah (du’aa’) and praying humbly to Him when asking for one’s needs is one of the greatest forms of worship which is waseelah or seeking to draw closer to Him and attain His pleasure and mercy.
From this it may be understood that what many of the heretics and followers of ignorant men who claim to be Sufis say, which is that what is meant by waseelah in the verse is the Shaykh who has the power of mediation between him and his Lord, is ignorance, blindness and obvious misguidance; it is toying with the Book of Allaah.
Taking intermediaries is the essence of the kufr of the kaafirs, as Allaah clearly stated when He said concerning them (interpretation of the meaning):
“[They say:] We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allaah”
“and they say: ‘These are our intercessors with Allaah.’ Say: ‘Do you inform Allaah of that which He knows not in the heavens and on the earth?’ Glorified and Exalted is He above all that which they associate as partners (with Him)!”
Every one who is accountable must understand that the way to attain the pleasure of Allaah and His Paradise and His mercy is to follow His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Whoever deviates from that has gone astray from the straight path.
“It will not be in accordance with your desires (Muslims), nor those of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof”
The meaning of waseelah that we have explained here is also the meaning in the verse where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Those whom they call upon [like ‘Eesa (Jesus) ‑ son of Maryam (Mary), ‘Uzayr (Ezra), angels and others] desire (for themselves) means of access to their Lord (Allaah) as to which of them should be the nearest”
Another meaning of waseelah is the status in Paradise which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told us to ask Allaah to grant to him, and we hope that Allaah will give it to him, because only one person will be entitled to it, and he hoped that he would be the one. End quote.
Adwa’ al-Bayaan, 2/86-88
And Allaah knows best.
Praise be to Allaah.
It is obligatory upon the Muslim to follow the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), according to the way of the righteous salaf who followed the guidance of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), the Sahaabah and those who followed them – may Allaah be pleased with them all. These people are called Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah (the People of the Sunnah and the Community).
Everyone who follows the way brought by the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is one of them. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) brought the message of Tawheed (absolute Oneness of Allaah) and rejection of shirk (polytheism, or association of others with Allaah); he called people to worship Allaah alone and none other.
With regard to the word “Wahhaabis”, some people use this word to refer to the message of Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhaab ibn Sulaymaan al-Tameemi al-Hanbali (may Allaah have mercy on him), and they call him and his followers Wahhaabis. Everyone who has any knowledge of the movement of Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhaab (may Allaah have mercy on him) and his message knows that he sought to spread the message of pure Tawheed and to warn against shirk in all its forms, such as attachment to the dead, or to trees and rocks, etc. In his ‘aqeedah (belief), he was following the way of the righteous Salaf and the Taabi’een [i.e., the earliest generations of Islam], as is indicated by his books and fatwas, and the books of his followers among his sons and grandsons and others. All of these books are in print and are in circulation among the people.
His message was in accordance with the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Wahhaabism is not a new way or a new school of thought; rather it is a call to Tawheed and the revival of aspects of the religion that had been forgotten. What you have to do is to beware of those who warn you against the Wahhaabis, because they are warning you against following the truth and the early generation of this ummah. Applying the word “Wahhaabis” to those who adhere to correct belief and warning people against them is the way of the ignorant and biased. We ask Allaah to keep you safe and sound.
Praise be to Allaah.
The phrase Ahl al-Hadeeth (people of hadeeth) refers to a group who venerate the Sunnah and seek to propagate it. They adhere to the ‘aqeedah (beliefs) of the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). In seeking to understand their religion, they refer to the Qur’aan and Sunnah and the interpretation of the best generations, unlike others who adhere to beliefs other than the ‘aqeedah of the righteous salaf and refer to human reasoning, tastes and what they see in dreams.
This group is the saved group, the victorious party, which many imams have stated is the group referred to in the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): “A group of my ummah will continue to prevail, following the truth. They will not be harmed by those who humiliate them until the decree of Allaah comes to pass when they are like that.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1920).
The imams, in the past and more recently, have said a great deal describing this group. We may chose from among them the following:
1 – al-Haakim said:
Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal did well when he commented on this report by saying that the victorious group who will prevail until the Hour begins is “ashaab al-hadeeth” (the people of hadeeth). Who is more deserving of this description than people who follow the way of the righteous and follow in the footsteps of the salaf who came before us, and exposed the falsehood of the people of bid’ah (innovation) by basing their arguments on the Sunnahs of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)?
Ma’rifat ‘Uloom al-Hadeeth, by al-Haakim al-Nisaboori, p. 2, 3
2 – al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadi said:
Allaah has made these people – Ahl al-Hadeeth – the pillars of sharee’ah, and He has destroyed through them all abhorrent innovations. They are the trustees of Allaah among His creation, the intermediaries between the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his ummah. They are the ones who are striving hard to protect his religion; their light is shining, their virtues are well known, the signs of their sincerity are obvious, their way is prevailing, and their evidence is supreme. Every group has its own focal point which is based on whims and desires, apart from the people of hadeeth, whose reference point is the Qur’aan, whose evidence is the Sunnah and whose leader is the Messenger to whom they belong; they do not pay any attention to whims and desires, and they do not care about personal opinions. They are content with what is narrated from the Messenger, and they are the ones who are entrusted with it and they take care of it. They are the guardians and keepers of the faith, the vessels and bearers of knowledge. If there is a difference of opinion concerning a hadeeth, people refer to them, and what they rule is what is accepted and listened to. Among them are prominent faqeehs, great imams, ascetics who are well-known among their tribes, men who are known for their virtue, skilled reciters of Qur’aan and good speakers. They are the majority and their way is the right way. Every innovator pretends to be following their path, and cannot dare to claim any other way. Whoever opposes them, Allaah will destroy him, and whoever goes against them, Allaah will humiliate him. They are not harmed by those who forsake them, and those who stay away from them will not prosper. The one who cares for his religion needs their help, the one who looks down on them is a loser, and Allaah is able to support them.
Sharf Ashaab al-Hadeeth, p. 15
3 – Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said:
Hence it is clear that the people who most deserve to be called the victorious group are “Ahl al-Hadeeth wa’l-Sunnah”, who have no leader to follow blindly apart from the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). They are the most knowledgeable of people concerning his words and deeds, the most able to distinguish between what is sound and what is not [of hadeeth]. Their imams have deep knowledge of that, they are the ones who understand its meanings and are the most sincere in following it. They accept it and believe in it, and act upon it. They show love to those who adopt it and they show enmity to those who oppose it. They are the ones who measure any idea against that which is proven in the Qur’aan and Sunnah, so they never adopt any idea and make it one of the basic principles of their religion unless it is proven in that which the Messenger brought. Rather they make that which the Messenger brought, the Qur’aan and Sunnah, the foundation and basis of their beliefs. With regard to the issues concerning which people dispute, such as the attributes of Allaah, the divine decree, the threat of Hell, the names of Allaah and the principle of enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil, etc., they refer that to Allaah and His Messenger. They examine the general ideas concerning which the different groups dispute, and whatever of these ideas is in accordance with the Qur’aan and Sunnah, they approve of it, and whatever goes against the Qur’aan and Sunnah, they reject it. They do not follow conjecture or whims and desires. For following conjecture is ignorance and following whims and desires without any guidance from Allaah is wrongdoing.
Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 3/347, 348.
We should note that Ahl al-Hadeeth includes everyone who follows the hadeeth of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and gives it precedence over all else, whether he is a scholar or an ordinary Muslim.
Shaykh al-Islam [Ibn Taymiyah] said:
We do not mean by Ahl al-Hadeeth only those who study it, write it down or narrate it, rather we mean anyone who takes care to memorize it, understand it and follow it, both inwardly and outwardly. The same may be said of “Ahl al-Qur’aan” (the people of the Qur’aan).
The basic quality of these people is their love of the Qur’aan and hadeeth, referring to them and their meanings, and acting upon what they learn.
Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 4/95
Praise be to Allaah.
Who was Ibn Arabi?
He was a prominent Sufi; in fact he was an extreme Sufi.
His name was Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al-Taa’i al-Andalusi. The scholars have told us about him in response to a question which was put to them.
The question was as follows:
What do the imaams of the religion and the guides of the Muslims say about a book which has been circulating among the people, the author of which claims that he wrote it and distributed it to people by permission of theProphet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) which was given
to him in a dream which he claims to have seen?
Most of this book contradicts what Allaah revealed in His Books and is opposed to what His Prophets said.
Among the things that he says in this book are:
Adam was called insaan because in relation to the truth (Al-Haqq), he was like the pupil [insaan]
of the eye, the part that can see.
Elsewhere he said: Al-Haqq which is transcendent is the physical creation which you can see.
Concerning the people of Nooh he said: if they had turned away from their worship of
[their idols] Wudd, Siwaa’, Yaghooth and Ya’ooq, they would have lost more of Al-Haqq.
Then he said:
Every object of worship is a manifestation of Al-Haqq. Those who know it, know it, and those who do not know it, do not know it. The one who has knowledge knows what he is worshipping and in what image the
object of his worship is manifested.
These many and varied manifestations are like the limbs of a physical image.
Then he said concerning the people of Hood:
They reached a true state of closeness (to Allaah) and were no longer remote.
The heat of Hell no longer affected them and they gained the blessing of closeness to Allaah because they deserved it. They were not given this delicious experience as a favour, but because they deserved it as a result of the essence of their deeds, for they were on a straight path.
Then he denied the idea of the warning against those of mankind against whom the word of
punishment is justified.
Should the one who believes in what he says be denounced as a kaafir, or should we accept
what he says, or what?
If the person who listens to him is an adult of sound mind, and does not denounce him by speaking or in his heart, is he a sinner, or what?
Please explain to us clearly and with proof, as Allaah has taken the covenant from the
scholars on that basis, for negligence [on the part of the scholars] causes a great deal of confusion to the ignorant.
(Aqeedah Ibn al arabi;Arabi wa Hayaatuhu by Taqiy al-Deen al-Faasi, p. 15, 16).
(The author) mentioned the response of some of the scholars:
;Al-Qaadi Badr al-Deen ibn Jamaa’ah said:
The passages quoted, and other similar parts of this book, are bida,shirk and misguidance, evil and ignorance. The religiously-committed Muslim would not pay any heed to them or bother to read the book to find out more.
The Messengerof Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) could never give permission in a dream for something which goes against and contradicts Islam; on the contrary, this is from the evil insinuations or
whispers of the Shaytaan and a trap whereby the Shaytaan is playing with him and tempting him.
His words about Adam, that he is the pupil of the eye, and his likening Allaah to His creation, and his remark that &l squo;Al-Haqq which is transcendent is the physical creation which you can see’ – if by ‘Al-Haqq’
he is referring to the Lord of the Worlds – is a clear statement of
anthropomorphism [likening Allaah to His creation] and he has taken this
notion to extremes.
regard to his denial of what has been narrated in the Qur’aan and Sunnah
concerning the warning: this makes him a kaafir in the view of the
scholars of the followers of Tawheed.
comments about the people of Nooh and of Hood is vain and false talk which
deserves to be rejected. The best way of dealing with that is to destroy
this and all other similar passages of his book, for it is no more than
fancy words, an expression of baseless ideas and an attempt to introduce
into the religion ideas that do not belong to it. The ruling on this is
that it should be rejected and ignored. (Ibid., p. 29, 30).
al-Qal’ah Shaykh Shams al-Deen Muhammad ibn Yoosuf al-Jazari
be to Allaah. His comment about Adam being called insaan is
anthropomorphism [likening Allaah to His creation] and is a lie and
falsehood. His belief that the idol-worship of the people of Nooh was
valid is kufr. Anyone who says such a thing cannot be approved of. His
comment that ‘Al-Haqq which is transcendent is the physical
creation which you can see’ is false and contradictory, and it is also
kufr. His comment that the people of Hood had reached a true state of
closeness (to Allaah) is a lie against Allaah, and by saying this, he has
rejected what Allaah said about them. His remark that they were no longer
remote and that Hell became a blessing and a joy for them is a lie and a
rejection of everything that was revealed to the Prophets; the truth of
the matter is what Allaah said about that, that they (the people of Hood)
will abide in the torment forever.
those who believe what he says – and he knows what he said – the same
ruling applies to them as to him: that they are misguided kaafirs, if they
have knowledge. If they do not have knowledge, then the person who says
that out of ignorance should be told the truth and taught about it, and
should be stopped if possible.
denial of the warning to all people is a lie and a rejection of the
consensus (ijmaa’) of the Muslims. No doubt Allaah will bring about the
punishment. Islam offers definitive evidence that a group of sinners from
among the believers will be punished, and the one who denies that is
regarded as a kaafir. May Allaah protect us from wrong belief and denying
the Resurrection. (Ibid.,
p. 31, 32).
Muslims, Christians and Jews all know something which is a basic principle
of the Muslims’ religion: that whoever says of any human being that he
is a part of God is a kaafir, he is regarded as a disbeliever by all these
religions. Even the Christians do not say this, although their belief is a
major form of kufr; no one says that the essence of creation is part of
the Creator, or that the Creator is the creation, or that Al-Haqq
which is transcendent is the physical creation which you can see.
his remark that if the Mushrikeen turn away from idol-worship, they will
have turned away from Al-Haqq to the extent that they have
abandoned idol-worship, is obviously kufr according to the basic principle
that is common to all the religions. For the religions are agreed that all
the Prophets forbade idol-worship and regarded as disbelievers those who
did that; the believer cannot be a believer unless he disavows himself of
worshipping idols and of everything that is worshipped instead of Allaah.
As Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning);
there has been an excellent example for you in Ibraaheem (Abraham) and
those with him, when they said to their people: ‘Verily, we are free
from you and whatever you worship besides Allaah, we have rejected you,
and there has started between us and you, hostility and hatred for ever
until you believe in Allaah Alone’” [al-Mumtahanah 60:4]
and he quoted other aayaat as proof -- then he said:
says that if the idol-worshippers give up their idols, they will have
turned away from Al-Haqq to the extent that they have abandoned
idol-worship, is an even worse kaafir than the Jews and Christians, and
the one who does not regard them as kaafirs is an even worse kaafir than
the Jews and Christians, for the Jews and Christians regard
idol-worshippers as disbelievers, so how about one who says that the one
who gives up idol-worship has turned away from Al-Haqq to the
extent that he has abandoned idol-worship?! Let alone the fact that he says, The one who has knowledge
knows what he is worshipping and in what image the object of his worship
is manifested. These many and varied forms are like the limbs of a
physical image and the energy in a spiritual image; nothing but Allaah is
being worshipped in everything that is worshipped. He is an even greater
kaafir than the worshippers of idols, for they only take them as
intercessors and mediators, as Allaah says (interpretation of the
Mushrikeen say] ‘We
worship them only that they may bring us near to Allaah’” [al-Zumar
they taken (others) as intercessors besides Allaah? Say: “Even if they
have power over nothing whatever and have no intelligence?” [al-Zumar
acknowledged that Allaah is the Creator of the heavens and the earth, and
the Creator of the idols, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
verily, if you ask them: ‘Who created the heavens and the earth?’
Surely, they will say: ‘Allaah (has created them)’” [al-Zumar 39:38]
al-Islam also said:
the faqeeh Abu Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Salaam came to Cairo and they asked
him about Ibn ‘Arabi, he said:
is a vile and evil shaykh who says that the world is eternal and does not
see anything haraam in any sexual relationship.
mentioned the belief that the world is eternal because this is what [Ibn
‘Arabi] believed, but this is well-known form of kufr and the faqeeh Abu
Muhammad denounced him as a kaafir because of this. At that time Ibn
‘Arabi had not yet said that the universe was God or the universe was
the image and essence of God. This is a greater form of kufr because those
who say that the universe is eternal still believe that there had to be
Someone Who brought it into existence, that from the One Who must exist
comes that which may exist. Those shaykhs who met him [Ibn ‘Arabi] said
that he was a liar and a fabricator, and that in his books such as al-Futoohaat
al-Makkiyyah etc. there were lies which could not be concealed from
any intelligent person.
I have not even
mentioned one-tenth of what they mentioned about kufr, but people who do
not know about them have been deceived by these ideas, just as they were
deceived by the Baatini Qaraamitah when they claimed to be descendents of
Faatimah and said that they belonged to the Shee’ah, so the Shee’ah
began to like them without knowing of their hidden kufr. So the person who
is attracted to them is one of two things: either he is a heretic and
hypocrite, or he is misguided and ignorant. With regard to these
pantheists (ittihaadiyoon), their leaders are the leaders of kufr and must
be executed, and their repentance cannot be accepted if they are seized
before they repent, for they are among the greatest heretics, those who
make an outward display of being Muslim whilst concealing kufr in their
hearts, those who conceal their beliefs and their opposition to Islam.
Everyone who follows them, who defends them, who praises them, who admires
their books, who is known to help them, who does not like to speak against
them or who makes excuses for them by saying that we do not know exactly
what these statements mean, who says ‘How can we be sure that he wrote
this book?’ and other excuses which no one but an ignorant person or a
hypocrite would come up with, must be punished.
Indeed, it is
obligatory to punish everyone who knows about them but does not help to
resist them, because campaigning against these people is one of the most
serious duties, for they have corrupted the minds and religious belief of
many shaykhs, scholars, kings and princes, and they are spreading
corruption throughout the world, preventing people from following the path
of Allaah. The harm that they cause to the religion is greater than that
done by those who damage the worldly interests of the Muslims but leave
their religion alone, such as bandits on the highways and the Tatars
(Mongols) who took their wealth but left their religion alone. Those who
do not know them should not underestimate the danger they pose. Their own
misguidance and the extent to which they misguide others defies
well of them and claims not to know how they really are should be informed
about them. If he does not then turn his back on them and denounce them,
then he should be classed as one of them.
says that their words could be interpreted in such a way that it does not
contradict sharee’ah is one of their leaders and imaams. If he is
intelligent, he should know what they really are. But if he believes in it
and behaves like this openly and in secret, then he is a worse kaafir than
p. 25-28 – adapted and abbreviated)
words of Ibn ‘Arabi were mentioned to our master Shaykh al-Islam Siraaj
al-Deen al-Balqeeni, and he was asked about Ibn ‘Arabi. Our Shaykh
al-Balqeeni said: he is a kaafir.
these Sufis are: Ibn ‘Arabi, Ibn Saba’een, Ibn Barrajaan and their
followers who follow their path and their religion. They have many books
in circulation that are filled with blatant kufr and repugnant bid’ahs,
trying to interpret clear texts in very far-fetched and repugnant ways,
such that the reader is astounded that anyone could attribute such things
later Sufis, such as Ibn ‘Arabi and his followers, are misguided and
ignorant and beyond the pale of Islam; those among them who have knowledge
are even worse.
Zar’ah ibn al-Haafiz al-‘Iraaqi said:
the famous book Al-Fusoos contains blatant kufr, as does al-Futoohaat
al-Makkiyyah. If it is true that he wrote this and continued to
believe in it until he died, then he is a kaafir who is doomed to eternity
in Hell, no doubt about it.
So how can any
sane person say that these brilliant scholars did not understand Ibn
‘Arabi? If they did not understand him, who can?
incident from which we learn a lesson:
heard our companion al-Haafiz al-Hujjah al-Qaadi Shihaab al-Deen Ahmad ibn
‘Ali ibn Hajar al-Shaafa’i say: there were many disputes about Ibn
‘Arabi between me and one of those who like Ibn ‘Arabi, until I
insulted him because of the bad things that he had said, but that did not
make the man change his mind. He threatened to complain about me to the
Sultaan in Egypt with regard to a matter that was different from that
which we were arguing about, just to cause trouble for me. I said to him:
the Sultaan has nothing to do with this! Come, let us make Mubaahalah
[call our sons, our wives and ourselves and pray and invoke the Curse of
Allaah upon those who lie – cf. Aal ‘Imraan 3:61]. It is very rare,
when people make Mubaahalah and one of them is lying, for that one
to go unpunished. So he said to me, ‘Bismillaah’ [i.e, he agreed]. And
I said to him: ‘Say: O Allaah, if Ibn ‘Arabi is misguided, then curse
me with Your Curse’ – so he said that. Then I said, O Allaah, if Ibn
‘Arabi is rightly-guided, then curse me with Your Curse. Then we parted.
Then we met in a park in Egypt on a moonlit night, and he said to us,
Something soft touched my leg, look! So we looked but we did not see
anything. Then he checked his eyes and he could not see anything (i.e.,
Allaah had afflicted him with blindness).
is the meaning of what Al-Haafiz Shihaab al-Deen ibn Hajar
al-‘Asqallaani told me.
p. 75, 76).
is how this man has misguided and deceived those who are seeking the truth
and who want to follow the path of right guidance. He is a heretic who was
not ahead of his time in any way except in misguidance and kufr. He does
not possess any light or wisdom; on the contrary he is in the depths of
darkness and ignorance.
have quoted to you the words of scholars other than Ibn Taymiyah, to point
out the kufr of Ibn ‘Arabi, so that you will not think that Ibn Taymiyah
was the only one who denounced him as a kaafir.
Praise be to Allaah.
This vow is invalid, because it is an act of worship to someone other than Allah. You have to repent to Allah from that, turn back to Him, repent, seek forgiveness, and regret it. A vow is an act of worship. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And whatever you spend (e.g., in Sadaqah — charity for Allaah’s Cause) or whatever vow you make, be sure Allaah knows it all” [al-Baqarah 2:270], and He will reward you for it. And the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever swears a vow to obey Allah, let him obey Him, but whoever vows to disobey Him, let him not disobey Him.”
This vow is invalid and is associating others with Allah, may He be glorified and exalted. This vow that you made to one of the dead imams, to ‘Ali, to al-Husayn, to Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qaadir or anyone else is an invalid vow and associating others with Allah. The same applies to vows made to people other than these, such as to al-Sayyid al-Badawi or al-Sayyidah Zaynab or al-Sayyidah Nafeesah or anyone else. All of that is invalid. Similarly making a vow to the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) is invalid, because a vow cannot be made to anyone other than Allah, because it is an act of worship. Prayer, sacrifice, vows, fasting and supplication should all be directed to Allah alone, may He be glorified and exalted, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything)”
“And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him”
This means: he has enjoined that you should worship none but Him. And Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“So, call you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم and the believers) upon (or invoke) Allaah making (your) worship pure for Him (Alone) (by worshipping none but Him and by doing religious deeds sincerely for Allaah’s sake only and not to show off and not to set up rivals with Him in worship), however much the disbelievers (in the Oneness of Allaah) may hate (it)”
“so invoke not anyone along with Allaah”
Worship is the right of Allah; vowing is an act of worship, fasting is an act of worship, prayer is an act of worship, supplication is an act of worship and sacrifice is an act of worship. So they must be done sincerely for Allah alone. So this vow is invalid and you do not have to do anything, whether for the poor or for anyone else. Rather you have to repent and you do not have to fulfil this vow, because it is invalid and it is shirk. You have to repent sincerely and do righteous deeds. May Allah help you and guide you to that with which He is pleased and bless you with sincere repentance. End quote.
Praise be to Allaah.
Belief in the good character and virtue of the Sahaabah is the belief of Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah. That is because Allaah has praised them in His Book and they were also praised by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) as is narrated in the books of Sunnah. These texts reach the level of mutawaatir in many cases, which clearly indicates that Allaah gave them special virtues and noble characteristics, by means of which they attained that great honour and high status with Him. As Allaah chose for His message the most pure-hearted of His slaves (i.e., the Prophets), so too He chose as the heirs of the Prophets those who would be grateful for this blessing and who were fit for this honour (of conveying the message), as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Allaah knows best with whom to place His Message”
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Allaah knows best where to place His Message, both with regard to the original recipient and those who inherit it from him. He knows best who is fit to receive His Message and convey it to His slaves in a trustworthy and sincere manner, respecting the Sender and fulfilling his duties towards Him, patiently following His commands and showing gratitude for His blessings and drawing close to Him, and He knows who is not fit for that. Similarly, He knows best who among the nations is fit to be the heirs of His Messengers and to succeed them and convey the Message that they received from their Lord.
Tareeq al-Hijratayn, p. 171
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Thus We have tried some of them with others, that they might say: ‘Is it these (poor believers) whom Allaah has favoured from amongst us?’ Does not Allaah know best those who are grateful?”
Shaykh al-Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Those who acknowledge the blessing and affirm it, and who do what it requires of righteous deeds, are the ones on whom Allaah bestows His blessing, to the exclusion of those who are not grateful, for Allaah is wise and He does not place His bounty with one who is not qualified to receive it.
Just as there are many verses and ahaadeeth which speak of their virtue and high status, so too there are texts which state the reasons why they deserved this high status, such as the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allaah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Tawraat (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers, that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allaah has promised those among them who believe (i.e. all those who follow Islamic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise)”
Among the greatest reasons for the high status of the Sahaabah is that to which Allaah bore witness of their purity of heart and sincere faith. That, by Allaah, is a mighty testimony from the Lord of mankind, which no human being can attain after the cessation of the Revelation.
Listen to the words of Allaah (interpretation of the meaning):
“Indeed, Allaah was pleased with the believers when they gave the Bay‘ah (pledge) to you (O Muhammad) under the tree, He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down As‑Sakeenah (calmness and tranquillity) upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory”
Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Tafseer al-Qur’aan al-‘Azeem (4/243):
“He knew what was in their hearts” i.e., of sincerity and loyalty, and the willingness to hear and obey. End quote.
How beautiful are the words of ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him): “Whoever among you wishes to follow (someone), let him follow one who has died, for the one who is still alive is not safe from fitnah. The companions of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) were the best of this ummah, the most righteous of heart and the deepest in knowledge and the most straightforward, people whom Allaah chose to accompany His Prophet and establish His religion. So acknowledge their virtue and follow in their footsteps, and adhere as much as you can to their morals and religion, for they were following right guidance.
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr in al-Jaami’, no. 1810.
Allaah promised Paradise and eternal bliss to the Muhaajireen and Ansaar, and He stated that He is pleased with them in verses that will be recited until the Day of Resurrection.
Can anyone think that this would be given to one who does not deserve that bounty?
Allaah, may He be glorified and exalted says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And the foremost to embrace Islam of the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allaah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success”
The leader of mankind, the foremost among the Messengers and Prophets, also testified to their virtue. He was a witness over them during his lifetime; he saw their sacrifices and their sincere resolve, and he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) spoke immortal words of the honour of his companions and his love for them.
It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not revile my companions, for by the One in Whose hand is my soul, if one of you were to spend the equivalent of Uhud in gold, it would not amount to a mudd of one of them, or half of that.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (3673) and Muslim (2540).
It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The best of the people are my generation, then those who come after them, then those who come after them.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (2652) and Muslim (2533).
Al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Kifaayah (49):
Even if there was nothing narrated from Allaah or His Messenger about them, the things that they did such as migrating (hijrah), engaging in jihad, supporting (the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and Islam), expending their lives and their wealth, killing their fathers and sons (in jihad), sincerely following the deen, believing strongly and with certainty, is definitive proof of their good character and sincerity, and shows that they are superior to all those sincere people of good character who come after them, for all time. This is the view of all the scholars, and of the fuqaha’ whose opinion counts. End quote.
If we were to list the attitudes with which they supported the deen and the righteous deeds by means of which they deserved that high status, we would fill volumes. Their whole lives were spent for the sake of Allaah and what book is big enough to contain the lives of hundreds of the Sahaabah who filled the world with goodness and righteousness?
Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:
Allaah looked into the hearts of His slaves, and He saw that the heart of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was the best of people’s hearts, so He chose him for Himself and sent him with His message. Then He looked into the hearts of His slaves after the heart of Muhammad, and He found that the hearts of his companions were the best of people’s hearts, so He made them the supporters of His Prophet, who fought for His religion. So whatever the Muslims think is good, is good before Allaah, and whatever they think is bad, is bad before Allaah. End quote.
Narrated by Ahmad in al-Musnad (1/379). The scholars of hadeeth said: Its isnaad is hasan.
It is essential to understand that the Sahaabah were not infallible. This is the view of Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah. Rather they were human beings like any others.
Whatever sins or mistakes any of them may have made maybe overlooked in comparison to the honour of accompanying the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and they were forgiven and pardoned. Good deeds take away bad deeds. The support that the Sahaabah gave to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) at any given moment for the sake of this religion cannot be matched.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Ahl al-Sunnah speak well of them, and pray for mercy and forgiveness for them, but they do not believe that anyone is infallible or that anyone is protected from making mistakes in their ijtihaad except the Messenger of Allaah; it is possible for anyone else to commit sins or make mistakes, but they are as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“They are those from whom We shall accept the best of their deeds and overlook their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise ___ a promise of truth, which they have been promised”
The virtue of any deeds is to be judged by the results and consequences. Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 4/434.
This is confirmed in the Qur'aan and Sunnah, in more than one place.
Allaah forgave those of the Sahaabah who turned back on the day of Uhud, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met (i.e. the battle of Uhud), it was Shaytaan (Satan) who caused them to backslide (run away from the battlefield) because of some (sins) they had earned. But Allaah, indeed, has forgiven them. Surely, Allaah is Oft‑Forgiving, Most Forbearing”
[Aal ‘Imraan 3:155]
When one of the Sahaabah sinned by telling Quraysh that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was coming with the army during the year of the Conquest, and ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab wanted to execute him, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “He was present at Badr, and you do not know, perhaps Allaah looked upon the people of Badr and said: ‘Do what you wish, for I have forgiven you.’” Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim (2494).
And there are other cases in which some of the Sahaabah committed sins, then Allaah, may He be exalted, pardoned them and forgave them, which is indicative of their virtue and honour and that cannot be undermined by any mistake that they made during the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or after he died. The verses quoted above, which speak of their virtue and give them the glad tidings of Paradise, cannot been abrogated by anything.
And Allaah knows best.
Praise be to Allaah.
Our Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is the leader of all the sons of Adam, and he is a human being, one of the sons of Adam. He was born from two parents, he ate food and married woman, he got hungry and fell sick, and he felt joy and sorrow.
One of the clearest signs of his humanity is that Allaah caused him to die as He causes all souls to die, but what distinguishes the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) from others is Prophethood and Revelation.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Say (O Muhammad): I am only a man like you. It has been revealed to me that your Ilaah (God) is One Ilaah (God ___ i.e. Allaah)”
The state of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in his humanity is the same as that of all the Prophets and Messengers. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And We did not create them (the Messengers, with) bodies that ate not food, nor were they immortals”
Allaah condemned those who wondered at the humanity of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And they say: Why does this Messenger (Muhammad) eat food, and walk about in the markets (as we)…?”
It is not permissible to overstep the mark with regard to what the Qur’aan states about the message and humanity of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). For example, it is not permissible to describe him (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) as being noor (light) or as casting no shadow, or to say that he was created from light. Rather this is a kind of exaggeration which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade when he said: “Do not exaggerate about me as was exaggerated about ‘Eesa ibn Maryam. Say: the slave of Allaah and His Messenger.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6830.
Moreover it is proven that the angels are the ones who were created from light, not any of the sons of Adam. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The angels were created from light, and Iblees was created from smokeless fire, and Adam (peace be upon him) was created from what has been described to you.” Narrated by Muslim, 2996.
Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (458):
This indicates that the well known hadeeth that is in circulation among people – “The first thing that Allaah created was the light of your Prophet, O Jaabir” – is false, and so are other similar ahaadeeth which say that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was created from light. This hadeeth clearly indicates that the angels are the only ones who are created from light, not Adam and his sons, so pay heed and do not be negligent. End quote.
The Standing Committee for Issuing Fatwas was asked the following question:
Here in Pakistan the scholars of the Bareilawi sect believe that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cast no shadow, which indicates that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was not human. Is this hadeeth saheeh which says that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had no shadow?
This view is false and goes against the texts of the Qur’aan and the saheeh Sunnah which indicate that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was human and did not differ in his human make-up from other people. He had a shadow like any other human. The Prophethood with which Allaah honoured him did not alter the fact that he was human as Allaah created him, with a father and mother. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Say (O Muhammad): I am only a man like you. It has been revealed to me that your Ilaah (God) is One Ilaah (God ___i.e. Allaah)”
“Their Messengers said to them: We are no more than human beings like you”
With regard to the report that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was created from the light of Allaah, this is a fabricated hadeeth. End quote.
Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 1/464
Praise be to Allaah.
The scholars have discussed this issue, in the past and more recently, and they refuted those who quote the fact that the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is inside his mosque as evidence that it is permissible to take graves as places of worship, or to include graves in mosques. We will quote the fatwas of some of our prominent scholars, which discuss in detail the matter raised in the question.
1 – Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
There is a specious argument put forward by those who worship graves, namely the fact that the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is in his mosque. The answer to that is that the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) did not bury him in his mosque, rather they buried him in the house of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her). When al-Waleed ibn ‘Abd al-Malik expanded the Mosque of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) at the end of the first century, he incorporated the room into the mosque, but he did wrong thereby, and some of the scholars denounced him for that, but he believed that there was nothing wrong with it for the sake of expanding the mosque.
It is not permissible for a Muslim to take that as evidence that mosques may be built over graves, or that people may be buried inside mosques, because that goes against the saheeh ahaadeeth, and because it is a means that may lead to shirk by associating the occupants of the graves in worship with Allaah. End quote.
Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 5/388, 389.
2 – Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about the ruling on praying in a mosque in which there is a grave.
Praying in a mosque in which there is a grave falls into two categories:
(i) Either the grave was there before the mosque, and the mosque was built over the grave. It is essential to shun this mosque and not pray therein, and the one who built it must knock it down; if he does not do so, then the Muslim authorities must knock it down.
(ii) Or the mosque was there before the grave, and the deceased was buried after the mosque was built. In the case the grave must be dug up, and the remains taken out and buried with the people (in the graveyard).
As for praying in such a mosque, it is permissible so long as the grave is not in front of the worshipper, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade praying in the direction of graves.
With regard to the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) which is incorporated into his mosque, it is well known that the Mosque of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was built before his death, and was not built over his grave. It is also well known that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was not buried in the mosque, rather he was buried in his house which was separate from the mosque. At the time of al-Waleed ibn ‘Abd al-Malik he wrote to his governor in Madeenah, who was ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azeez, in 88 AH, ordering him to dismantle the Prophet’s Mosque and add to it the rooms of the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). ‘Umar gathered the prominent people and fuqaha’, and read the letter of the caliph al-Waleed to them. That caused them distress, and they said: “Leave it as it is, that is better.” And it was narrated that Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyib denounced the incorporation of ‘Aa’ishah’s room into the mosque, as if he feared that the grave would be taken as a place of worship.
Umar wrote a letter to that effect to al-Waleed, and al-Waleed sent word to him ordering him to carry out his instructions, so ‘Umar had no other choice. So you see that the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was not placed in the mosque, and the mosque was not built over it, so there are no grounds for those who try to quote this as evidence that people may be buried inside mosques or that mosques may be built over graves.
It is proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “May the curse of Allaah be upon the Jews and the Christians; they have taken the graves of their Prophets as places of worship.” He said that as he was dying, as a warning to his ummah against doing what they did. When Umm Salamah told him of a church that she had seen in Ethiopia and the images therein, he said: “Those people, if a righteous man among them died, they would build a place of worship over his grave. They are the most evil of people before Allaah.” And it was narrated from Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Among the most evil of people upon whom the Hour will come when they are still alive are those who take graves as places of worship.” Narrated by Imam Ahmad with a jayyid isnaad.
The believer should not accept to follow the ways of the Jews and the Christians, or to be among the most evil of people.
Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 12/question no. 292
And Allaah knows best.
Praise be to Allaah.
Witchcraft or magic is knowledge that comes from the shayateen and is something that they do. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“They followed what the Shayaateen (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulaymaan. Sulaymaan did not disbelieve, but the Shayaateen (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic [al-Baqarah 2:102]
“And they learn that which harms them and profits them not. And indeed they knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no share in the Hereafter” [al-Baqarah 2:102]
“And the magician will never be successful, to whatever amount (of skill) he may attain” [Ta-Ha 20:69]
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Avoid the seven sins which doom a person to Hell.” They asked, “What are they?” He said, “Associating anything in worship with Allaah (shirk); witchcraft;…”
And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “He is not one of us who practices witchcraft or has it done for him.”
On this basis, it is not permissible to use witchcraft for any purpose whatsoever. Witchcraft or magic is falsehood, and all kinds of falsehood are kufr and evildoing. Sin cannot be a means of achieving something good. Beneficial things have to be sought through the prescribed means which involve no sin and whose consequences are safe. Allaah has given His slaves sufficient means in the things that He has permitted them, so they have no need for the things that He has forbidden. To Him be praise and thanks for His blessings.
Praise be to Allaah.
1 – Seeking the help of the jinn or turning to them to fulfill one’s desires to cause harm or bring benefit is shirk or associating others in worship with Allaah, because it is a kind of mutual benefiting whereby the jinn responds to the human’s requests and fulfills his needs in return for the human’s veneration of the jinn, turning to him and asking for his help to do what he wants.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meanings):
“And on the Day when He will gather them (all) together (and say): ‘O you assembly of jinn! Many did you mislead of men,’ and their Awliyaa’ (friends and helpers) amongst men will say: ‘Our Lord! We benefited one from the other, but now we have reached our appointed term which You did appoint for us.’ He will say: ‘The Fire be your dwelling place, you will dwell therein forever, except as Allaah may will. Certainly your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing.’
And thus We do make the Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers) Awliyaa’ (supporters and helpers) of one another (in committing crimes), because of that which they used to earn”
“And verily, there were men among mankind who took shelter with the males among the jinn, but they (jinn) increased them (mankind) in sin and transgression”
If a human seeks the help of a jinn to cause harm to another person, or seeks his help for protection from the evil of a person whose evil he fears, all of that is shirk.
Whoever is like this, his prayer and his fasting are both invalid, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“If you join others in worship with Allaah, (then) surely, (all) your deeds will be in vain, and you will certainly be among the losers”
If a person is known for that, then the funeral prayer is not to be offered for him if he dies, his funeral is not to be attended, and he is not to be buried in the Muslim graveyard.
Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 1/407, 408
2 – The Standing Committee was asked a similar question, which said:
I would like to inform you that in Zambia there is a Muslim men who claims that he has jinn with him, and the people go to him and ask him to heal their diseases, and this jinn prescribes medicine for them. Is that permissible?
The answer is:
It is not permissible for that man to use the services of the jinn, and it is not permissible for the people to go to him, seeking treatment for their diseases through advice from the jinn, or to fulfil any needs in this manner.
Treating disease by means of human doctors and by using permissible medicines means that there is no need for that. This should be enough to free us from the control of these charlatans.
It was narrated in a saheeh hadeeth that the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever goes to a fortune-teller and asks him about something, his prayers will not be accepted for forty days.” (Narrated by Muslim)
The four authors of al-Sunan, and al-Haakim in a saheeh hadeeth, narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever goes to a fortuneteller and believes what he said has disbelieved in that which was revealed to Muhammad.”
This man and his companions from among the jinn are to be regarded as fortunetellers and soothsayers. It is not permissible to ask them anything or to believe them.
Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 1/408, 409).
And Allaah knows best.
Praise be to Allah.
Allah is close to His slaves; he sees where they are and He knows their situation. He hears what they say and responds to their du’aa’ (supplication). Nothing about them is hidden from Him, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Truly, nothing is hidden from Allaah, in the earth or in the heaven” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:5]
Allah Alone is the One Who has created us and Who provides for us; in His hand is the dominion and He is Able to do all things:
“To Allaah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is therein, and He is Able to do all things”
[al-Maa'idah 5:17 – interpretation of the meaning]
In Allaah’s hand alone is all goodness. When He calls mankind to something good in His Book or on the lips of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), they should obey that command and respond to it:
“O you who believe! Answer Allaah (by obeying Him) and (His) Messenger when he calls you to that which will give you life, and know that Allaah comes in between a person and his heart (i.e. He prevents an evil person to decide anything). And verily, to Him you shall (all) be gathered” [al-Anfaal 8:24 – interpretation of the meaning]
Allaah is Able to do all things, and He hears the supplication of His slaves. He responds to them at all times and in all places, no matter what their various needs and languages. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright
Allaah has commanded us to call upon Him in secret, with humility and submission, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Invoke your Lord with humility and in secret. He likes not the aggressors” [al-A’raaf 7:55]
To Allaah belongs Dominion and to Him be praise, and He is Able to do all things. The heavens and the earth and everything in them glorifies Him, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him and there is not a thing but glorifies His Praise. But you understand not their glorification. Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft‑Forgiving” [al-Israa’ 17:44]
Allaah has promised Jahannam to those who are too arrogant to worship Him and call upon Him. He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, those who scorn My worship [i.e. do not invoke Me, and do not believe in My Oneness, (Islamic Monotheism)] they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!”[Ghaafir 40:60]
Du’aa’ should be made to Allaah in the manner that Allaah and His Messenger have prescribed. For example, Allaah should be called upon by His Most Beautiful Names:
“And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allaah, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do” [al-A’raaf 7:180 – interpretation of the meaning]
So we may say O Most Merciful, have mercy on us, O Ever-Forgiving, forgive us, O Provider grant us provision, and so on.
When a person makes du’aa’, either Allaah gives him what he asked for or He diverts it from him a harm that is greater than the thing he asked for, or He stores up what he has asked for, for the Hereafter.
This is because Allaah has commanded us to call upon Him and He has promised to respond to our call:
“And your Lord said: ‘Invoke Me [i.e. believe in My Oneness (Islamic Monotheism) and ask Me for anything] I will respond to your (invocation)’ [Ghaafir 40:60 – interpretation of the meaning]
Allaah has commanded us to worship Him alone, and He has warned us against worshipping the Shaytaan. He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Did I not command you, O Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaytaan (Satan). Verily, he is a plain enemy to you.
And that you should worship Me [Alone Islamic Monotheism, and set up not rivals, associate‑gods with Me]. That is the Straight Path” [Yaa-Seen 36:60-61]
Calling upon anyone other than Allaah to meet one’s needs, relieve distress or heal disease is insanity caused by lack of understanding:
“Say (O Muhammad): ‘Shall we invoke others besides Allaah (false deities), that can do us neither good nor harm, and shall we turn back on our heels after Allaah has guided us (to true Monotheism)?’” [al-An’aam 6:71 – interpretation of the meaning]
If a person calls upon one who cannot bring benefit or cause harm, who cannot command or prohibit, who cannot hear or respond, whether that is a Prophet, a Messenger, a jinn or an angel, or a star or planet or rock or tree, or one of the dead – all of that is serious wrong-doing, and a going astray from the Straight Path. It is shirk, the association of others with Allaah the Almighty.
“And invoke not besides Allaah any such that will neither profit you nor harm you, but if (in case) you did so, you shall certainly be one of the Zaalimoon (wrongdoers)” [Yunus 10:106 – interpretation of the meaning]
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And who is more astray than one who calls on (invokes) besides Allaah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls (invocations) to them
Calling upon anyone or anything other than Allaah is shirk, and shirk is a great sin, indeed it is the greatest sin. Allaah will forgive any sin for whomever He wills, except for shirk, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, Allaah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills [al-Nisaa’ 4:48]
On the Day of Resurrection, Allaah will gather the mushrikeen and everyone who was worshipped instead of Him, then those who were worshipped instead of Allaah will disavow those who worshipped them, and they will deny their association with Allaah, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmeer (the thin membrane over the date stone).
If you invoke (or call upon) them, they hear not your call; and if (in case) they were to hear, they could not grant it (your request) to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none can inform you (O Muhammad) like Him Who is the All‑Knower (of everything).
O mankind! it is you who stand in need of Allaah. But Allaah is Rich (Free of all needs), Worthy of all praise”(Faatir 35: 13-15)
Praise be to Allaah.
We must understand that the word al-soofiyyah (Sufism) refers to wearing woollen clothes [the Arabic word soof means “wool”] and nothing else.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
The word al-soofiyyah (Sufism) refers to wearing woollen clothes; this is the correct meaning. It was said that it comes from the word safwat al-fuqaha’ (the elite of the fuqaha’) or from Soofah ibn Add ibn Taanijah, an Arab tribe that was known for its asceticism, or from Ahl al-Suffah (poor Muslims in Madeenah at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who used to stay in the mosque), or from al-Safa (the mountain in Makkah), or from the word al-safwah (meaning elite), or from the phrase al-saff al-muqaddam bayna yaday Allaah (the foremost rank before Allaah). All of these views are weak (da’eef); if any of them were true then the word would be saffi or safaa’i or safawi, not sufi.
Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 11/195
Sufism (tasawwuf) did not appear until after the first three generations which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) praised when he said, “The best of mankind is my generation, then those who come after them, then those who come after them…” (narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2652; Muslim, 2533; from the hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ood).
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
With regard to the word soofiyyah (Sufism), it was not known during the first three generations, rather it became known after that.
Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 11/5
This tareeqah and its like are among the innovated ways that go against the Qur’aan and Sunnah and the way followed by the best generations. All the shaykhs of these tareeqahs have made up their own wirds (phrases to be uttered as dhikr), hizb (books of du’aa’ to be read daily by their followers) and ways of worship by which each of them may be distinguished from the others; this goes against sharee’ah and divides the ummah.
Allaah has blessed this ummah by perfecting its religion and completing His Favour upon it, so everyone who comes up with an act of worship or a way that was not brought by sharee’ah is effectively rejecting what Allaah has said and accusing the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) of betraying the trust.
Along with this innovation of theirs, they may also be lying by claiming that they received their tareeqah from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), or that they are following the path and guidance of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs (al-khulafa’ al-raashideen).
The scholars of the Standing Committee were asked:
Is there any such thing in Islam as the numerous tareeqahs like the Shaadhilyyah, Khalwatiyyah etc? If there is such a thing, what is the evidence for that? What is the meaning of the verses in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And verily, this is My straight path, so follow it, and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His path. This He has ordained for you that you may become Al‑Muttaqoon (the pious)”
“And upon Allaah is the responsibility to explain the Straight Path. But there are ways that turn aside (such as Paganism, Judaism, Christianity). And had He willed, He would have guided you all (mankind)”
What are the ways that separate people from the path of Allaah, and what is the way of Allaah? What is the meaning of the hadeeth narrated by Ibn Mas’ood, according to which the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) drew a line and said, “This is the path of guidance,” then he drew lines to its right and another to its left and said, “These are other paths and on each path there is a devil calling people to it”?
There is no such thing in Islam as the tareeqahs that you mentioned, or anything else like them. What there is in Islam is what is indicated by the two verses and the hadeeth that you quoted, and what was indicated by the hadeeth in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The Jews split into seventy-one sects, and the Christians split into seventy-two sects. My ummah will split into seventy-three sects, all of which will be in Hell except one.” It was asked, “Who are they, O Messenger of Allaah?” He said, “Those who follow the same path as I and my companions are on today.” And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “A group among my ummah will continue to follow the truth and to be victorious, and they will not be harmed by those who forsake them or oppose them, until the command of Allaah comes to pass when they are like that.” The truth lies in following the Qur’aan and the saheeh, unambiguous Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). This is the path of Allaah, this is the Straight Path. This is the straight line mentioned in the hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ood, and this is what was followed by the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) (may Allaah be pleased with them and with their followers among the early generations (salaf) of this ummah, and with those who follow their path). All other tareeqahs or groups are the paths mentioned in the verse (interpretation of the meaning):
“… and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His path…”
Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 2/283, 284
And Allaah knows best.
All praise be to Allaah.
It is proven in the Qur’aan and Sunnah and by the consensus (ijmaa’) of the salaf (early generations) of this ummah that Allaah is above His heavens on His Throne, and that He is the Exalted, Most High. He is Above all things, and there is nothing that is above Him. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Allaah it is He Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them in six Days. Then He rose over (Istawaa) the Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). You (mankind) have none, besides Him, as a Wali (protector or helper) or an intercessor. Will you not then remember (or receive admonition)?”
“Surely, your Lord is Allaah Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days and then rose over (Istawaa) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty), disposing the affair of all things [Yunus 10:3]
“To Him ascend (all) the goodly words, and the righteous deeds exalt it (i.e. the goodly words are not accepted by Allaah unless and until they are followed by good deeds) [Faatir 35:10]
“He is the First (nothing is before Him) and the Last (nothing is after Him), the Most High (nothing is above Him) and the Most Near (nothing is nearer than Him) [al-Hadeed 57:3]
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “You are the Most High and there is nothing above You…”
There are many similar ayaat and ahaadeeth. But at the same time, Allaah tells us that He is with His slaves wherever they are:
“Have you not seen that Allaah knows whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth? There is no Najwa (secret counsel) of three but He is their fourth (with His Knowledge, while He Himself is over the Throne, over the seventh heaven), — nor of five but He is their sixth (with His Knowledge), — nor of less than that or more but He is with them (with His Knowledge) wheresoever they may be” [al-Mujaadilah 58:7]
Allaah has combined mention of His being above His Throne with mention of His being with His slaves in one aayah, where He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days and then rose over (Istawaa) the Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). He knows what goes into the earth and what comes forth from it, and what descends from the heaven and what ascends thereto. And He is with you (by His Knowledge) wheresoever you may be [al-Hadeed 57:4]
Saying that Allaah is with us does not mean that He is mixed with (or dwells in) His creation; rather He is with His slaves by His knowledge. He is above His Throne and nothing is hidden from Him of what they do. With regard to the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):
“And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein (by Our Knowledge)” [Qaaf 50:16]
Most of the mufassireen said that what is meant is that He is near by means of His angels whose task it is to record people’s deeds. And those who said that it means that He is near explained it as meaning that He is near by His knowledge, as is said concerning how He is with us.
This is the view of Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah, who affirm that Allaah is above His creation and that He is also with His slaves, and they state that He is far above dwelling in His created beings. With regard to the denial of all Divine attributes as voiced by the Jahamiyyah and their followers, they deny that His Essence is above His creatures and that He rose above His Throne, and they say that He is present in His Essence everywhere.
We ask Allaah to guide the Muslims.
Sects and Innovations (Bidah)
Madhabs (Schools of Thought)
Jinn and Black Magic
Seerah (Biography) of the Prophet
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